Lv 6. However, as we are no longer as confident of possessing any such "certainties" of reason, happiness may not, in principle, be in a worse position than anything else we pursue. For Aristotle, happiness is the highest end of our actions. “For Kant, acting freely that is autonomously and acting morally according to the moral law, are one and the same thing. It is the (Athenaeus, 1999, p.666). It would not be applicable to all rational beings at all times, in all places, for it would be dependant at least on ‘contingent circumstances’. Or at … Like Utilitarianism, Imannual Kant’s moral theory is grounded in a theory of intrinsic value. 0 The failure to acknowledge the disunity of happiness and morality helms various problems within moral theory, ergo Kant seeks to cast further light on this distinction to prove his proposition that a moral theory based on happiness is the ‘euthanasia of all morals’. But if you are still with me, listen to what Immanuel Kant, the great 18th-century philosopher, has to say about the pursuit of happiness. Take choosing to force a highly depressed person to take pleasure-inducing drugs, or imagine a doctor abandoning a comatose patient to take his children to a theme park. In Ethics, Aristotle argues the highest end is the human good, and claims that the highest end pursued in action is happiness. The failure to acknowledge the disunity of happiness and morality helms various problems within moral theory, ergo Kant seeks to cast further light on this distinction to prove his proposition that a moral theory based on happiness is the ‘euthanasia of all morals’. A. K. Thomson), London: Penguin, Aristotle (2000), Nicomachean Ethics) (Trans W. D. Ross), Kindle Ebook, Athenaeus (1999) Deipnosophistae. The key characteristic of this way of life is to constantly exercise and extract the best of each individual. It's quite different from the average 21st-century advice. It is happiness in both of these senses that Kant seeks to distance from morality, for having either of these as the basis for morality will ‘leave moral principles up to…contingent circumstances’ (as cited in Guyer, 2007, p.7). Thus happiness and virtue are conjoined. They fail to appreciate that ‘the maxims of virtue and those of one’s own happiness are entirely heterogeneous as regard their highest practical principle’ (ibid). Kants philosophy is extraordinarily complex but perhaps he was most interested in reconciling Christianity with the science of the Enlightenment. Finally, this theory leaves much scope for people to pursue happiness, which is protected by the CI, thereby making a Kantian ethic more coherent than alternatives, in turn reintroducing true morality back into the picture, rather than a loose form of egoism. If they do not bring it about, we should bid them goodbye. @��$+�r�O[���w �ۜ�e�:�/���v+�n����U �~��.&��*�o��e/y�/���m& He held that an act was not virtuous unless it was done as an end in itself, and that pleasure is a consequence of virtue, not a reason for it. One argument is that providing someone with a job is not treating them as a means to your ends; instead, by allowing them the opportunity to earn a living, you’re actually supporting their projects and happiness. The motivation is not born of some desire to acquire happiness or pleasure from the act (although this may come about also), because a good/virtuous doctor is one who will treats patients out of duty even if this will be of detriment to his own happiness. To explain, consider Utilitarianism and Epicureanism. Viz. Since happiness seems to be reliant on external conditions, in that luck plays a part, and that man’s function could change to remove virtue from happiness, it is more coherent to separate morality and happiness, thereby creating one objective notion (morality), and one dependant notion (happiness). Rationality, the basis of Kantian morality, must take into account ends for it to be considered practical. Yet, their theories differ ultimately in how to go about attaining happiness. We all know that fucking off in the short term inevitably harms us in the long term. If virtuous action did not contribute toward happiness, it would not be recommended by Aristotle for it would serve no role in the Good Life as it would not contribute toward the ultimate end. But if you are still with me, listen to what Immanuel Kant, the great 18th-century philosopher, has to say about the pursuit of happiness. For example, most people say courage is a virtue; however, I'm sure it took courage for the 9-11 bombers to hijack different planes, their bad will makes courage immoral in this case. Thirdly, these rules do not reduce human freedom. 0000002209 00000 n But where the utilitarian take happiness, conceived of as pleasure and the absence of pain to be what has intrinsic value, Kant takes the only think to have moral worth for its own sake to be the good will. It is happiness. Why are moderation, self-control, and sober reflection not unconditionally good? Through this we are freed from blindly chasing desires and happiness, which for Kant is a higher state of being, thus liberating us to rationally pursue happiness. Aristotle is not offering a magic wand to erase all threats to happiness. Kant writes that the principle of happiness tells virtue “to her face that it is not her beauty but only our advantage that attaches us to her.” And that, he thinks, is clearly wrong. By resting rights on a calculation about what will produce the greatest happiness, he argues, utilitarianism leaves rights vulnerable. Kant's ethic is often characterized as one in which the notions of duty and motive supplant the notions of happiness, pleasure, and ends. c)The good will is the only thing that is good without qualification. So Kant tries to solve the conflict between ( Log Out / What Kant has done is set forth this duty in a way that can be understood and that respects autonomy and freedom of others so that, looking at it from a distance, mankind as a whole will be more free to pursue personal ends. Kant says that a good will is good without qualification. Immanuel Kant (1724 1804) is generally considered one of the three or four greatest philosophers in the Western tradition. duty is the necessity of an action from respect for the law morality could not be objective as Kant believed. %%EOF This means that a good will is always good, and does not require anything else to be good. Furthermore, all of these theories have as their motivating factor self-interested ends, leaving us questioning whether or not a person acting out of these motivations is truly moral. Although they respect the variety within humankind, they do nothing about the conflicts of interests of different parties within society. Kant surprisingly argues that the liar commits wrongdoing “in general” (8: 426, 429) when she lies. Aristotle seems to have made a large blunder in tarring all of humanity with the same brush. We are motivated to sensible happiness through inclination, such as a striving to feel pleasure through the satisfaction of desires. For me personally, I often notice how much short-term happiness I’m sacrificing in anticipation of long-term happiness. ����yU+) 7�/���_ޞr1�$'S"�zИ�$t��a���mQ:h�n@3,*��8�mh7#�`LE�?����2��H�F���p#��J�ɲh�!�]tD�U�.�h�J�jh��$��. For the philosopher Kant, happiness is something that is rather ambiguous -- that is, happiness is not black or white, but rather, many different shades of grey, depending on the person. 0000005069 00000 n Similarly, being a member of humankind, most people intuitively feel a sense of moral or social duty toward others. And should the CI be true, Kant is justified in believing that theories such as Hedonism and Utilitarianism fail to ‘adequately distinguish between virtue and happiness’ (ibid, p.8). If it does not, the theory will be too far removed from humanity, for we cannot be expected to constantly act in ways that pull contrary to our will. b. the full development of human potential. 41 0 obj <> endobj But where the utilitarian takes happiness, conceived of as pleasure and the absence of pain to be what has intrinsic value, Kant takes the only thing to have moral worth for its own sake to be the capacity for good will we find in persons. You can also experience an unexpected pleasure for which you had no prior desire.9 Nevertheless, Kant does think that there is an important connection between pleasure and the formation of inclinations: 1. 0000000928 00000 n Immanuel Kant Questions and Answers - Discover the eNotes.com community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on Immanuel Kant They are what we all want and are the ultimate goals that all our actions aim toward. Aristotelianism, on the other hand, is an attempt to bring in a nobler, virtuous ethic, but to a degree disregards the variety in humankind. <]>> For Kant, happiness and morality are two disparate notions that are often mistakenly observed as compounded. Human happiness has been a topic of discussion for thousands of years. Although they respect the variety within humankind, they do nothing about the conflicts of interests of different parties within society. Firstly, the motivation behind moral action is in no way self-interest, it is a sense of duty. a)Pleasure is the only thing that is good without qualification. Aristotle spent a lot of time talking about happiness. Reason and imagination are mental functions used to tap into emotional states such as happiness. a. tells us that if we want something, we'd better act a certain way. This is one of the ways in which we know that a good will is good without qualification. The good will is the only unconditional good despite all encroachments. Bibliography, Aristotle (2004) Nicomachean Ethics (Trans. startxref Looking out for people's happiness follows from their intrinsic and infinite value as autonomous, free, rational beings. And happiness for Aristotle is much removed from merely hedonistic conceptions. 3. So Kant tries to solve the conflict between morality and happiness, make up the contradiction between them. – The ultimate goal of reason, the highest good, therefore is a combination of virtue and happiness – this Kant calls the summum bonum (Latin for ‘highest good’). Hume and Kant operate with two somewhat different conceptions ofmorality itself, which helps explain some of the differencesbetween their respective approaches to moral philosophy. For contrast and comparison, see Surprenant’s summaries of Aristotle and Kant’s views above and below. Along with this, the whole concept of the underlying motivation for acting virtuously being the achievement of some personal, ultimate end- Eudaimonia– seems largely self-centred, leaving one feeling uncomfortable with calling this prudence ‘morality’. Kant believe that liers and cheats and abusers and exploiters don't have the moral right to be happy. But Kant's account does not stop here, for the liar does do wrong, even though it is not against the murderer. Finally, this theory leaves much scope for people to pursue happiness, which is protected by the CI, thereby making a Kantian ethic more coherent than alternatives, in turn reintroducing true morality back into the picture, rather than a loose form of egoism. Not in any remarkable sort of way - he was mainly concerned to show how it differs from goodness in an ethical sense. Through this we are freed from blindly chasing desires and happiness, which for Kant is a higher state of being, thus liberating us to rationally pursue happiness. Why does Kant think a moral theory based on happiness is ‘the euthanasia of all morals’? For Aristotle, the most notable of the metaphysical philosophers, happiness is the highest desire and ambition of all human beings. This defect is remedied by 2Utilitarism which tries to avoid the lack of solidarity of an individualistic hedonism. Via this thought experiment, the good life for man can be separated from virtue, as virtue is only related to the good life by coincidence, in that it is what separates us from all else. Both of these well-known philosophers have a road map, if you will, to happiness. The main question now facing Kant is why one should act morally. To surmount this, Kant seeks to show the Moral Life as objective, that is, independent of any external circumstances as Aristotle’s theory is. In fact, happiness does have a pretty important role in our lives, and it can have a huge impact on the way we live our lives. In several works, Kant claims that lying is always wrong, no matter what. Is Fake Nature Less Valuable than the Real Thing? KANTIAN ETHICS . In sum, Aristotle’s reconciliation of virtue and happiness seems to fail because happiness can still be seen as higher than, or independent of, virtue and morality. Kant claims that the only thing that can be said to be good “without limitation” is. Aristotle’s solution is a more complex theory that seeks to once again reconcile these notions. In his opinion, the way to reach it is through virtue. In sum, the basis of Hedonist and Utilitarian theories seems problematic. Viz. Indeed, we cannot imagine a situation, according to Kant, in which we would disapprove of a good will. The formulations of the CI provide us with laws by which to abide, that, should we do so, will maintain human freedom and autonomy; aspects of man that Kant held with especially high regard as it is through reason that we have the ability to be free. The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. It is not unimportant. b)Individual rights limit what can be done in the name of maximizing aggregate happiness. With so many takes on happiness, it’s no wonder that happiness is a little difficult to define scientifically; there is certainly disagreement about what, exactly, happiness is. 0000001144 00000 n ‘End’ for Kant means, ‘the material of the will’ (ibid. Loosely speaking, Aristotle would disagree with this. German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was an opponent of utilitarianism. German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was an opponent of utilitarianism. I think happiness can – and should – be both. No, he did not. Furthermore, all of these theories have as their motivating factor self-interested ends, leaving us questioning whether or not a person acting out of these motivations is truly moral. We say to ourselves, “This is the right thing to do, and so I will do it.” One lives virtuously by nurturing his or her inherent good habits and developing new ones. Thus it is not objective, because should we be in other circumstances, our function could be different, thereby changing the constituents of the Good Life; possibly removing virtue from its centre; something Kant greatly seeks to avoid, and contrary to the popular view that virtue does, and should always, play a role in morality; without this, morality loses its essence. If our function was not to act in accord with virtue, but in accord with scientific progress, we could label our lives ‘good’ without being virtuous, provided we advanced science. Full disclosure. No headers. E.g. Secondly, for Kant there is a firm set of rules that guide moral action which the other theories lack. Kant proposes the elimination of the negative states of mind. British Shorthair. Secondly, for Kant there is a firm set of rules that guide moral action which the other theories lack. Available at. Kant understands the highest good, most basically, as happiness proportionate to virtue, where virtue is the unconditioned good and happiness is the conditioned good. Kant's theory of good will is that it is the only truly good and ethical thing in the world. On his view, "Kant's moral feeling of respect can and does motivate moral action" (2). Such happiness is undeserved. He did not believe that happiness itself was necessarily good or ethical. This “worthy of happiness” is the requirements for the confrontation and compromise between morality and happiness. As per Kant, love is inherently a life-promoting force, and an act of terminating it does not come from the right intent to be considered moral. He argues that the greatest happiness can be achieved by following moral values to live a busy life of politics and public splendor. Aristotle’s problem was that his theory was motivated by a self-centred end, yet if basing morality on happiness removes what we commonly call ‘moral’ from the equation, removing happiness from its basis seems also to remove any obvious motivation for why we should act as such without introducing other self-regarding ends. d. kindness. It is for these reasons that Kant is able to introduce the CI, irrespective of whether or not abiding by it directly increases happiness. He is probably the most well‐known defender of an absolute prohibition against lying in the history of Western philosophy. Immanuel Kant defines happiness as what an individual wants, he states that we cannot accurately know what happiness is in general, but we can give some examples that are … d)Maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain is all that matters, morally speaking. Aristotle also claims that happiness is achieved only by living a virtuous life – “our definition is in harmony with those who say that happiness is virtue, or a particular virtue; because an activity in accordance with virtue implies virtue. 0 0. Leading 20 th century proponent of Kantianism: Professor Elizabeth Anscombe (1920-2001). This gives us a solid framework by which to assess our actions. Aristotle's Opinion on Happiness. ( Log Out / As can be seen from the quote, Kant's somewhat dim view of the prospects of happiness relies on his maximalism about knowledge that elevates "certain" a priori principles, and their implications, above the merely empirical claims. But, as mentioned previously, if these virtues in no way contribute toward Eudaimonia, Aristotle has no reason to promote them for they serve no real use in the Good Life, or in achieving the perfect end. These seem to be the main problems with Aristotle’s theory. What feels the best for the most is virtue. Is he right? But just as though a doctor’s conduct must be regulated as not all doctors will act fundamentally out of duty, man’s conduct must also be regulated as not everyone will always act out of moral duty. Kant On Happiness (Notes – not to be quoted verbatim) Kant’s rejection of happiness: The will, Kant says, is the faculty of acting according to a conception of law. 0000002285 00000 n Self reservation and obtaining happiness. Kant was quite an accomplished scientist who developed the nebular hy… COMMENTS ON KANT'S ETHICAL THEORY Because we so commonly take it for granted that moral values are intimately connected with the goal of human well-being or happiness, Kant's insistence that these two concepts are absolutely independent makes it difficult to grasp his point of view and easy to misunderstand it. 642-675, Guyer, P (2007) Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, London: Continuum, Hill T (2002), Happiness and Human Flourishing in Human Welfare and Human Worth, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Kenny A (1996) Aristotle on the Perfect Life, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapter 2, Perfection and Happiness (pp. xref In short, pursuing happiness is a rational activity. Why does Kant claim that the only thing good without qualification is a good will? I'm trying to compare the two but after look at it so long they start to run together.. thanks in advance! Doing so enables one to continually make good choices and lead a happy life. Firstly, for Aristotle, there is a single form of Eudaimonia/happiness that is the highest thing we can achieve; in the Ethics Aristotle defines this happiness extensively. So, in some cases, one is being moral even when the consequences are knowingly bad. The key to Kant’s moral and political philosophy is his conception of the dignity of the individual. Like many Enlightenment thinkers, he holds our mental faculty of reason in high esteem; he believes that it is our reason that invests the world we experience with structure. This series of animated videos comes to us from Wireless Philosophy (Wi-Phi for short), a project jointly created by Yale and MIT in 2013. Kant was just describing which mental function is used when we think about the emotional state of happiness. Will with good in itself. The way in which happiness is linked in with Kant’s Categorical Ethic is that he says ‘for practical reason to be indifferent to ends…would be a contradiction; for it would not determine the maxims of actions… and, consequently, would not be practical reason’ (as cited in Wike, 1994 p.63). In The Metaphysical Principles of Virtue, Kant describes happiness as “continuous well-being, enjoyment of life, complete satisfaction with one’s condition.” 0000040453 00000 n Kant accepts that people are varied, and people’s ideas of happiness are numerous, leading to incoherence, self-contradiction, and innumerable moral conflicts of interests should happiness be the basis for morality. 0000005617 00000 n While morality is, for Kant, the sole unconditional good for human beings, he certainly does not deny that happiness is an important good, and indeed the … What does Immanuel Kant say about using people? Both theories have as their highest practical principle ‘happiness’. Immanuel Kant is an 18th century German philosopher whose work initated dramatic changes in the fields of epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, and teleology. Before addressing why Kant holds this view, it is important to understand what is being said through the term ‘happiness’ which, for Kant, can be understood in two ways; sensible, and intelligible. He believed that happiness was the goal of life, achieved by living virtuously. Kant has much respect and faith in human reason, and believes that, should we reason properly, we will come to understand and be motivated by these rationally based duties, and this is where moral motivation is borne and on what his moral theory is based. Both philosophers believe pleasure should not be the motivating force behind moral actions, for this completely disregards duty and virtue, thereby removing what is commonly called ‘moral’ or ‘good’ from those actions. J. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Thus, according to Kant, you have respected the humanity. These ideas epitomize the view of moral theories that recruit happiness as their basis. Under this light, Kant’s theory seems preferable to Aristotle’s. In Kant’s words, “virtue and happiness together constitute possession of the highest good in a person, and happiness distributed in exact proportion to morality (as the worth of a person and his worthiness to be happy) constitutes the highest good of a possible world” (5:110–111). They say happiness is a journey and not a destination. There is, however, a problem with this. Firstly, the motivation behind moral action is in no way self-interest, it is a sense of duty. Defenders of Kant understand all this perfectly and can respond. There is also a deeper problem: trying to de-rive moral principles from the desires we happen to have is the wrong way to think about morality. “A Great Moment For Democracy”: Nick Griffin on BNP’s ‘Victory’ at the European Elections, The Miscomprehension of Refraining from Polling, The Felice Brothers’ ‘Yonder is the Clock’, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-social-political/. c. the good will. If you punish a child for being naughty, and reward him for being good, he will do right merely for the sake of the reward; and when he goes out into the world and finds that goodness is not always rewarded, nor wickedness always punished, he will grow into a man who only thinks about how he may get on in the world, and does right or wrong according as he finds advantage to himself. Change ). Something is good if it promotes happiness, and it is bad if it produces suffering. In a sense, for Aristotle happiness or Eudaimonia is the ultimate end that we are striving toward, but this is not an end that can be achieved through the pleasure seeking motives of a Hedonist or Utilitarian. Thus far, as Kant and Aristotle show, the Hedonist can achieve a sensible, more animalistic happiness, but this in no way equates to a good, moral life, thereby pointing toward happiness and virtue/morality as separate. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Actions must be rationally considered in light of the CI, and it seems this is Kant’s intellectual happiness, and more importantly this is what he sees as deserved happiness, for it is far from difficult for one to pursue happiness irrespective of morality, whereas pursuing happiness in line with morality is deserved and virtuous, and something one can appreciate as being a significant part of the ‘Good Life’. Leading 20 th century proponent of Kantianism: Professor Elizabeth Anscombe (1920-2001). These rules are there to maintain freedom. What is important is that morality is not based on happiness. Both theories have as their highest practical principle ‘happiness’. 57 0 obj<>stream It involves highly rational aspects, from the gradual becoming of a virtuous man through habituation, to good fortune (NE Book2). QUESTION 1 Bentham and Kant agree on which of the following? It is also necessary to practice prudence of character a… Yet without addressing happiness at all, a moral theory seems somewhat empty. In the Metaphysics he says, ‘When the thinking man has triumphed over temptations to vice and is conscious of having done his often difficult duty, he finds himself in a state of satisfaction and peace of mind which can well be called happiness’ (as cited in Wike, 1994 p.14): quite clearly explicating moral happiness. 0000001064 00000 n Virtue stems from reason, which is the function of man. Not stealing money to save someone’s life. Obedience to the moral law — duty — is the most important thing, but happiness is also desirable. The discussion focuses on how to reach true happiness, and the relevance of happiness to decision making. Thus, virtue is a necessary ingredient to our perfection and happiness. What does Kant say about reasons function? In a Kantian sense, it is through our reason that we are able to lay down the law of the CI. Every human being can practise a way of life that will make him happier. Utilitarianism holds that pleasure and happiness have intrinsic value. 2º- is that it is individualistic, because for hedonism only the happiness of the individual matters. For Aristotle, it is not pleasure and pain that is the motivating force behind morality. Kant recognises this and says that to impose a particular conception of happiness on citizens is for ‘the ruler to treat citizens as children, assuming that they are unable to understand what is truly useful or harmful to them’ (SEP, N.D). It is what makes man stand out from all other creatures. And … 0000000016 00000 n 0000027243 00000 n Kant, more sympathetic to this variety, and in line with much common thought, believed the only universal principle of right is that; ‘Any action is right if it can coexist with everyone’s freedom in accordance with a universal law, or if on its maxim the freedom of choice of each can coexist with everyone’s freedom in accordance with a universal law’ (as cited in SEP, N.D). According to utilitarians, there is a very close connection between human reason and happiness -- their calculative conception of reason is in the service of happiness. Aristotle and Immanuel Kant had quite a bit to say on the subject. It is from here that many people misunderstand Kant, for there is no obvious connection with happiness. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. But if another creature could also reason, and had its function as acting virtuously, what would man’s function be? Kant notes that an important assumption necessary for moral responsibility is the idea that we human beings give the moral law to our own wills. Secondly, looking at the basis for Aristotle’s virtues, such as temperance and patience (NE Appendix1), it can be seen that the motivation for acting virtuously is the achievement of Eudaimonia. For example, any respectable doctor will feel a sense of duty to help his patients. This is the so-called “goodness”, namely, a consistency between morality and happiness. It is the most unqualifiedly perfect thing we can attain, and ‘perfection [of man] is a…property which happiness much possess’ (Kenny, 1996, p.17), and perfection is something aligned with man’s function; ‘an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue’ (1098a16). For example, most people say courage is a virtue; however, I'm sure it took courage for the 9-11 bombers to hijack different planes, their bad will makes courage immoral in this case. If this were the case there could be no such thing as the fundamental keystone of Kant’s moral theory; the objective Categorical Imperative (CI). However, Kant argues that morality is not for the purpose of happiness, but people of virtue and morality should not always suffer. Most notable of the Critique of Pure reason argues that morality is not against the murderer highest virtues he... Thanks in advance, because one wills to have ones desires satisfied act to promote freedom morality. No obvious connection with happiness ( or Eudaimonia ) when the consequences are bad... Of having it, from the gradual becoming of a sense of duty... Half of the mind with virtue Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp he argues that is... 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