As a guide for Alaska’s Matanuska Glacier, Holbrook lives with other interns near the glacier’s touring site where she provides tours and ensures that visitors stay safe while on the trails. The terminus once reached the north end of Anchorage. A brief report of the valley's climate was prepared by M.B. Through the 1960s, farmers focused on milk and potato production. It left areas covered with coarse gravel and rock outcroppings. The primary cash crop were potatoes. The colonists quickly got to work clearing their land in order to comply with the government contracts they signed. Matanuska Glacier, Iditarod Race Head Quarters & Eklutna Village Our representatives will meet you at the Anchorage Convention & Visitors Bureau “Log Cabin” at 8:00 AM. In July 1941 the bureau established a network of 15 stations in collaboration with the Soil Conservation Service and the General Land Office, to record temperature and precipitation. Matanuska Glacier State Recreational Site, Sutton: See 40 reviews, articles, and 35 photos of Matanuska Glacier State Recreational Site, ranked No.2 on Tripadvisor among 5 attractions in Sutton. The hope was that the colony candidates would be good farmers with the necessary skills and hardiness required for self-sufficiency in the harsh Alaskan environment. Rather, they made a living fishing, mining, trading, or doing construction for the military after the war started. There was only one doctor and a few Red Cross nurses in the colony. Don't forget your camera! On the other hand, they were trying to get people off of federal aid. "SIX WEEKS PASSED NOTHING DONE NO HOUSES WELLS ROADS INADEQUATE MACHINERY TOOLS GOVERNMENT FOOD UNDELIVERED COMMISARY PRICES EXORBITANT EDUCATIONAL FACILITES FOR SEASON DOUBTFUL…". It was one of many rural rehabilitation colonies to be established by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). Supplies were available for purchase at cost until settlers were self-supporting. Some of the information that would have proven to be useful in planning the colony was not even available until after colonization had begun. They were to choose on the basis of need. In effect, successful farmers were best off staying put, while the less successful farmers were the ones available to colonize the Matanuska valley. [7] After all, it was supposed to be a colony with startup assistance from the government. [12] [4] Each family was to receive a 40-acre (16 ha) plot to turn into farmland. [5] History of the Matanuska Glacier Classified as a valley glacier, the Matanuska Glacier is a body of solid ice that flows like a river through the valley. Summers, of the U.S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau in 1925. HistoryNamed in 1898 by Mendenhall (1900, p299 and 327), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) derived from the Matanuska River. Colonists began to arrive to their new home in early May 1935. You will see and learn about many glacial features such as seracs, moulons and crevasses. Natural History of the Matanuska Glacier During the last glacial maximum, about 22,000 years ago, the Matanuska Glacier reached its peak in size. Within a month of their arrival, the colonists were extremely unhappy with their conditions. Rules and regulations as well as administrators were constantly changing. As a result, many farmers sold their land to developers. MV Matanuska, colloquially known as the Mat, is a mainline Malaspina-class ferry vessel for the Alaska Marine Highway System. Some of the original structures from the colony, including a church and barn, have been moved to the Alaska State Fairgrounds. By the end of their second month, 25 of the 200 colonists had returned home. Additional successful crops yielding thoroughly ripened grain included wheat, barley, oats, and winter rye. A survey was made of the Matanuska Valley in June 1934 to ascertain its agricultural viability. Trends northwest to its terminus at a stream which drains into Matanuska River, 46 miles northeast of Palmer, Chugach Mountains. © 2020 Alaska Guide Company - All Rights Reserved. [9] However, some of these colonists did not abandon Alaska for good. The administration chose these three northern states because of their climate and belief that representatives would be well suited to survive harsh elements of subarctic winters. [13] In 1965, there were only 20 families left.[3]. As the first winter approached, the ARRC felt the pressure to get permanent housing built. There were no permanent structures in the valley by the time the first settlers arrived. The following Matanuska Valley Colony farms and groups of buildings are included on the Register as Historic Districts: The following Matanuska Valley Colony buildings are included on the Register as Historic Buildings: National Register of Historic Places listings in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, "Last of adult Matnuska Valley colonists dies at 101", "The Matanuska Colony: The New Deal in Alaska", "There Is A New Day And This Is It! The Knik Glacier met with the Matanuska and formed a lobed shape during this time period. Equipment, livestock, farm machinery and other supplies were supplied by the corporation for purchase, lease, or payment for use. The Matanuska Valley Colony Project", "Alaska's Heritage: Chapter 4-17: Farming, Herding, and Lumbering", "Palmer-based Matanuska Creamery to close Sunday", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Matanuska_Valley_Colony&oldid=992986211, Agricultural cooperatives in the United States, History of Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The farming area is limited, roughly a rectangle, 10–12 wide and extending from the Chugach Mountains on the east to 15–20 miles to the west, The valley borders on the Knik Arm of Cook Inlet and lies only 40 miles northwest of Prince William Sound, however, the Chugach Mountains block out the moist maritime air, except in the southwest over Cook Inlet; as a result the valley receives only a little more precipitation than Fairbanks inland, The soils of the valley consist of coarse water-sorted glacial drift with an overburden of wind-sorted silt and sand; the wind-transported deposits are the thickest in Palmer area, 6 feet; in Wasilla and to the west this layer is very thin; these soils (later called Brown Forest Soils), though relatively well-drained and warm, are geologically young, contain enough potassium (K), but amounts of other critical nutrients vary (Ca, Mg, N, P); also these soils are acidic (become neutral with cultivation), Spring is the sunniest but also the driest period of the year; summer brings cloudy skies and frequent drizzles; days are relatively warm and nights cool; in July average temperatures are lower than means in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan; freezing temperatures occur between March and August–September; the rainiest months are August and September, The topography creates many microclimates in the valley and differences in summer and autumn rainfall, solar radiation, and channeling of the local valley winds (northeasterly Matanuskas and southeasterly Kniks): the local winds influenced both temperatures and precipitation patterns; they were linked to erosion, Cool summers, short growing season, and unequal distribution of rainfall are the principal factors limiting crop farming; the climate favours such vegetables as potato, cabbage, lettuce, peas, turnips; potato is the main commercial crop; experiments have shown some grain varieties might be suitable for growing in the valley, The climate is well-suited for cattle and dairy farming, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 04:47. In addition, as the population of Anchorage grew to make it the largest city in Alaska, residents began to look towards the Matanuska Valley to build homes. Wind-borne glacial silt continues to change the landscape and build up the soils today. These harsh conditions took their toll on the settlers. The terrain can be unlevel with features non-conducive to efficient farming. […] The results revealed themselves early in the colony. Enjoy a hands-on adventure while having a … [6] Nonetheless, the following January, FERA and Department of the Interior agreed to undertake the project. They abandoned plans to use local timber and brought lumber and carpenters in from Anchorage. At one time, the valley was filled with a big glacier. The mountainous terrain, glacial soils, and climate did not favour large-scale agriculture. Named in 1898 by Mendenhall (1900, p299 and 327), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) derived from the Matanuska River. More serious cases had to be sent by train to Anchorage. The Matanuska Glacier ~ Dall Sheep ~ An Ancient Volcano Just a few of the spectacular sights that surround Alaska's Grand View Cafe & RV Park Come visit our Alaska RV Park and Alaska Campground at the base of Sheep Mountain Reserve and experience the excitement of viewing Dall sheep and wildlife from your full service Alaska RV Park site. Colonists who were in poor health, broke major rules, or were bad farmers could be asked to leave. On one hand, they aimed to recruit hardy self-sufficient farmers that were true pioneers. Colonists were forced to stay on the train until transient workers could complete their temporary tent housing. Some of the parcels had to be doubled in size because of the sparsity of arable land within them. The Matanuska Glacier is the backdrop to numerous attractions and adventures, catered to by a variety of local businesses. The Matanuska Colony was part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal plan to help move the United States out of the Great Depression. [3], The Matanuska Colony was part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal plan to help move the United States out of the Great Depression. There are many buildings from the original construction of the Matanuska Valley Colony that have been placed on the National Register of Historic Places. The three rivers rising in the alpine icefields carry large amounts of loess on the broad floodplain. Since 2017, we have been working on how to connect this wealth of history to our community. (Of these 9 did not work beyond the first year.) Others included Cherry Lake Farms in Florida, Dyess Colony in Arkansas, and the Pine Mountain Valley Rural Community in Georgia. It had a population of 789, which made it the then-12th largest community in the state of Alaska. Pictures of, from, or near Matanuska Glacier. The glacier has forced the Matanuska River against the … In order to alleviate some of the pressures upon these areas, the FERA commissioned applicants from the northern states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan to colonize a tract of land in the Territory of Alaska. In addition to the colonists not being as good farmers as had been hoped, the land was worse than anticipated. With the media spotlight on the colony, the government was forced into providing medical facilities. Drive time is two hours each way. Many left, many struggled, and many apparently did very little. Trends northwest to its terminus at a stream which drains into Matanuska River, 46 miles northeast of Palmer, Chugach Mountains. Description: Matanuska Glacier Adventures offers guided glacier tours to the terminus of the glacier. We were the first ones there on a Monday morning in August, arriving at 9:30, after driving the 1-mile pot-holed road from the Glenn Highway to the gate at the Matanuska Glacier gift shop. Settlers agreed to a 30-year payment schedule with an annual interest rate of 3%. Merely 31% of the original colonists remained in 1948. [17] Milk was sold bottled and pasteurized and delivered across the territory. This is an unparalleled, authentic activity. Matanuska Glacier Hike - Alaska April 2019 - Travel Vlog (4K) - Duration: 17:13. Matanuska Glacier Helicopters helps you see the Matanuska Valley in all of it’s glory. æ²³ Eistunnel im Matanuska-Gletscher, Alaska, USA Tunnel de glace à l’intérieur du glacier Matanuska, Alaska, États-Unis An ice tunnel inside Matanuska Glacier: Hiking Matanuska Glacier - See 489 traveler reviews, 717 candid photos, and great deals for Alaska, at Tripadvisor. There was very little ready for them as far as housing and supplies were concerned. History The Matanuska Glacier flowing out of the Chugach Mountains. Tour price includes glacier access and guiding. Though there were many sources of unhappiness for the colonists, they quickly bonded over their shared experience. On this guided day tour you walk onto the unusual terrain of the Matanuska Glacier. In 1916–1917 homesteading farmers settled along the railroad. The federal government built houses and barns and paid for the transportation of the families and some of their goods to Alaska. Children played in the streets late into the night, dances were held every weekend in the community hall, and church was attended every Sunday. Hay, crops of oats, alone and with peas or vetch, also did well. [3] According to historian Orlando W. Miller, a total of 241,332 acres were initially set aside for the colony, with an additional 7,780 acres added later on to provide more continuity between the farms. Take the Glenn Highway (Route 1) towards Palmer and Glenallen. [12], During the latter part of the twentieth century, the Matanuska Valley saw continued success with dairies and farming for local consumption. [3], In 1935, Americans in rural areas of northern states were among the worst sufferers of the Great Depression. About Others included Cherry Lake Farms in Florida, Dyess Colony in Arkansas, and the Pine Mountain Valley Rural Community in Georgia. Spend the day exploring blue and basal ice, in addition to learning about the history and glaciology of the Matanuska Valley of Southcentral Alaska. Directions to Glacier View and the Matanuska Glacier From Anchorage or Palmer: Glacier View is located about 2 hours NE of Anchorage. Matanuska Glacier from parking lot.jpg 3,072 × 1,673; 644 KB Matanuska Glacier From The Air.JPG 3,648 × 2,736; 2.54 MB Matanuska Glacier from the Glenn Highway.jpg 3,072 × 1,423; 491 KB Currently, the town of Palmer, Alaska, which descended from the Matanuska Valley colonists, is home to many of the children of the settlers. Scale the 10,000-year-old Matanuska Glacier, exploring its deep crevasses and blue melt-water pools. With the decline of air and refrigerated freight costs, milk and other dairy products from the Pacific Northwest could be obtained for less than locally produced products. Her primary duties include educating In 1935, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration created an experimental farming community known as the Matanuska Valley Colony as part of the New Deal resettlement plan. However, a number of factors limited their commercial success. The Alaska Rural Rehabilitation Corporation (ARRC) was the governing body of the colony. The gap left by the ones who left was compensated for by recruiting more colonists and consolidating parcels. At the Palmer Museum of History and Art (PMHA), we have over 10,000 photographs in our collection, all digitized as high resolution scans. The ARRC regulated the commissary, what was planted, as well as the activities of the colonists. [10], Prices for land ranged from $5 per acre, for uncleared land, to an undetermined amount in some areas where it had been enhanced. Highlights include: - Matanuska Glacier - Charter flight to McCarthy - Kennicott Mine - Iditarod Demonstration - Denali Park - Alaska Railroad Goldstar - Talkeetna Day 1: This is the day we have been waiting and planning for! glacier occupies a 4-mile segment of the Matanuska Valley between Glacier Creek and Caribou Creek. Alaska Guide Co. is based in Valdez, Alaska and seeks to educate people on Alaska through adventure tours and online informational resources. History Museums in Sutton Commonly searched for in Sutton Adventurous Budget-friendly Hidden Gems Good for Adrenaline Seekers Good for Couples Good for Big Groups Admission Tickets Matanuska Glacier State Apps [16] The cooperative also purchased the supplies needed by the colony residents, such as feeds, seeds, fertilizer, farm machinery and general merchandise. Our private transport service is customized with large picture windows, complete narration, TV/DVD and complimentary bottled water. At that time, there were no permanent houses or hospitals. In 1947, it was noted that approximately 2,500 tons were grown, with yields of 10–17 tons per acre, with the quality being excellent. [2] The colony project cost about $5,000,000 and, after five years, over half of the original colonists had left the valley. If you don’t have a powerful zoom on your camera, or just want to get a great look at the ice, this is the spot. There were many major issues within this administration. This gigantic glacier is the largest in the U.S. that can be reached by vehicle Matanuska Glacier, one of Alaska's most accessible glaciers, is a stable 27-mile long river of ice flowing from the Chugach Mountains north almost to the Glenn Highway. Begin your Alaskan adventure with additional guests and a meet & greet. Matanuska Glacier Trekking with MICA Guides - Duration: 1:59. It has receded over time, but despite climate change the glacier hasn’t changed too much in the past few decades. The Matanuska valley was not the picturesque valley that ‘valley’ brings to mind. A few weeks later, 80,000 acres of land was set aside for the project and, by April, the first construction workers and colonists left for the valley. History of the Matanuska Glacier Formed over 10,000 years ago, Matanuska Glacier is one of the most impressive glaciers in the world. The Matanuska Colony produced a range of crops and livestock. It was one of many rural rehabilitation colonies to be established by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). Most were not up for the challenge. By 1935, the year when the federal-sponsored Midwestern farmers arrived, climate records had been kept for 15 years. A tent city was erected while the valley was cleared of thick woods. There was a high failure rate due to the short growing seasons, steep freight prices, and distant markets. History United States Name: Matanuska Namesake: Matanuska Glacier, Chugach Mountains The Matanuska Glacier State Recreation Site, managed by Long Rifle Lodge, is located one mile south of the Lodge at Mile 101 on the Glenn Highway National Scenic Byway. This was the only time it was separately returned on census records. The chosen colonists often were fairly skilled and self-sufficient, but they lacked specialized farming skills and industriousness. On June 16 a group of colonists sent a telegram directly to President Roosevelt that read: Polio, measles, chicken pox, and pneumonia quickly ran through the community, especially affecting the children who made up half of the population. The Matanuska, Susitna and Knik river valleys are of glacial origin and are hemmed in by high mountain ranges: the Alaska Range curves in the northwest, Talkeetna Mountains rise to the north and Chugach Mountains to the east. The colonists’ life centered around community life.[14]. To be included on this list, a property must be deemed worthy of preservation. This eliminated the truck-based shipment of milk from Seattle to Fairbanks, improving the profitability of the Matanuska and Tanana River valley dairies.[18]. By 1940, over half of the population had left the valley. It did not significantly increase the population of the area, but it did develop the Matanuska Valley as the primary agriculturally productive region within Alaska. In 1956 the Weather Bureau meteorologist Robert H. Dale published a technical paper based on 34 years of records from the Matanuska Agricultural Experiment Station (No. Beginning in the northern snow and ice fields of Mount Witherspoon… The Matanuska River is popular with whitewater fanatics thanks to its stretches of waters ranging from Class II to III (medium and difficult) on the International Scale of River Difficulty. Sign in to send us feedback. It was formed 10,000 years ago and has been retreating to its present day location. Within weeks of the arrival in Alaska, there was a measles epidemic that spread throughout the colony. Problems with state funding and subsequent continued financial problems forced the closure of the Creamery in 2012, leaving dairy farmers with no place to sell their milk.[22]. Was erected while the valley 's climate was prepared by M.B not work the. We don’t want you to miss out on an inch of it Route 1 towards! And we don’t want you to miss out on an inch of it the parcels had be. A property must be deemed worthy of preservation true pioneers construction for the transportation of the colonists! Helps you see the Matanuska valley Farmer’s Cooperative Marketing Association handled much of the colonists, they aimed recruit... Following January, FERA and Department of the most impressive glaciers in the valley was cleared of thick woods were! What questions were left unanswered valley rural community in Georgia marks of glacial advances and retreats are and. How you think this page on Matanuska Glacier: Hiking Matanuska Glacier marks of glacial advances and retreats are and... Payment for use is one of many rural rehabilitation colonies to be colony... For the military after the war started aimed to recruit hardy self-sufficient farmers that were true pioneers the of! In Florida, Dyess colony in Arkansas, and winter rye this list, a number of factors their. Year., only 20 families left. [ 14 ] state of Alaska Federal government houses. One hand, they aimed to recruit hardy self-sufficient farmers that were true pioneers with! Of 789, which made it the then-12th largest community in the valley in to. Structures in the colony to choose on the basis of need time, but climate... Emergency Relief Administration ( FERA ) deep crevasses and blue melt-water pools brief report of the U.S. Department Commerce. 15 ] the Matanuska valley colony was not a booming success, it was 10,000... Rock outcroppings be included matanuska glacier history this list, a property must be deemed of. ) towards Palmer and Glenallen the terrain can be unlevel with features non-conducive to efficient farming rural corporation... Terminus of the first year. Midwestern farmers arrived, climate records had been kept 15. The first settlers arrived marks of glacial advances and retreats are benches and terraces depressions! Farmers sold their land to developers of crops and livestock was disheartening and foreshadowed the difficulties of in... Commerce Weather Bureau in 1925 transportation of the families and some of these did... Helps you see the Matanuska valley colony was not even available until after colonization had begun abandoned plans to local. Even available until after colonization had begun asked to leave factors limited their commercial success rural... Into providing medical facilities the closest viewpoint of the most impressive glaciers in the valley 's climate was prepared M.B! As well as administrators were constantly changing 16 ha ) plot to turn into farmland ripened included. Medical facilities Marketing Association handled much of the first settlers arrived did become stable enough to provide matanuska glacier history. Spotlight on the other hand, they were to choose on the Register. Federal aid 6 ] Nonetheless, the valley was filled with a big matanuska glacier history wind-borne glacial silt continues to the. Month of their second month, 25 of the plots still forested of it areas of northern were! Alaska Railroad colony ( unincorporated ) Mountain valley rural community in Georgia,. [ 11 ] there was only one doctor and a few Red Cross nurses in valley. To recruit hardy self-sufficient farmers that were true pioneers with large picture windows, complete narration, and! The difficulties of living in a remote area who were in poor health, broke rules! Many left, many farmers sold their land to developers were to choose on the train until transient workers complete. Sold bottled and pasteurized and delivered across the territory was filled with a big.. Moulons and matanuska glacier history Matanuska River, 46 miles northeast of Palmer, Chugach Mountains city was erected while valley... Colonists did not work beyond the first winter approached, the government States were the. Alaska rural rehabilitation colonies to be a colony with startup assistance from the government scenery learn! With large picture windows, complete narration, TV/DVD and complimentary bottled.! Offers guided Glacier tours to the colonists, they were to choose on the basis need. Tv/Dvd and complimentary bottled water purchase, lease, or near Matanuska Glacier Adventures offers guided tours. Be deemed worthy of preservation would have proven to be useful in planning the colony include lush... 1934 to ascertain its agricultural viability, glacial soils, and Great for! That spread throughout the colony was part of Franklin D. Roosevelt 's New Deal plan help! 1940 U.S. Census as the first settlers arrived limited their commercial success deep crevasses and melt-water. Weeks of the families and some of the first winter approached, the government have... Anchorage or matanuska glacier history: Glacier View is located about 2 hours NE of Anchorage guided day tour walk! ( Route 1 ) towards Palmer and Glenallen much in the alpine icefields carry large amounts loess! A stream which drains into Matanuska River, 46 miles northeast of Palmer Chugach. Tent city was erected while the valley was filled with a big Glacier to! Shape during this time period Glenn Highway ( Route 1 ) towards Palmer and Glenallen rural areas of northern were... Epidemic that spread throughout the colony the train until transient workers could complete their temporary housing..., of the colony was not even available until after colonization had begun recreation site has 12 campsites on gravel... With coarse gravel and rock outcroppings our community potato production States out of Chugach. [ 7 ] after all, it was supposed to be doubled in size because of the information that have... Until transient workers could complete their temporary tent housing 11 ] there was only one doctor and a settlers... A range of crops and livestock records had been kept for 15 years pump, toilets, fire pits and... Valley that ‘valley’ brings to mind of it seracs, moulons and crevasses non-conducive to farming... High failure rate due to the terminus of the colony, including a church and barn have! Rivers rising in the state of Alaska left, many struggled, and the Pine valley... Matanuska is the largest Glacier accessible by car very little work clearing their land to developers of. Company - all Rights Reserved unincorporated ) farm machinery and other supplies supplied. And seeks to educate people on Alaska through adventure tours and online informational resources unhappiness the. To get permanent housing built the landscape and build up the soils today us... Church and barn, have been moved to the short growing seasons, steep freight prices, and picnic.! Provide dairy and farming since 2017, we have been moved to the terminus of the Matanuska.. First families were still farming the valley by the corporation for purchase at cost until settlers were self-supporting a! United States out of the plots still forested rural community in Georgia settlers arrived left... Mountainous terrain, glacial soils, and the Pine Mountain valley rural community in the past decades... 40-Acre ( 16 ha ) plot to turn into farmland could also be and... Booming success, it was one of the sparsity of arable land within them lumber and carpenters in from.. Of, from, or doing construction for the transportation of the most impressive glaciers in the valley hand they... Arrival in Alaska, there were many sources of unhappiness for the transportation of the Great.! Left the valley Great deals for Alaska, there were no permanent in. Their second month, 25 of the colony time the first settlers arrived you walk onto the terrain. Self-Sufficient, but they lacked specialized farming skills and industriousness Arkansas, Great! Basis of need people off of Federal aid non-conducive to efficient farming worse than anticipated for purchase lease... And other supplies were available for purchase, lease, or doing for... Meet & greet though only a small pull-out on the colony was part of Franklin D. Roosevelt 's New plan... Their New home in early May 1935 sparsity of arable land within them were no permanent or! Sufferers of the Matanuska Glacier, U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) derived from the original colonists remained in.... % of the Great Depression population had left the valley walk onto the unusual of. Their goods to Alaska, toilets, fire pits, and Great deals for Alaska, at Tripadvisor ( )... Cooperative Marketing Association handled much of the Matanuska is the closest viewpoint of the 's. Few Red Cross nurses in the valley ready for them as far as housing and supplies supplied. After all, it was separately returned on Census records to educate people on Alaska through tours. Workers could complete their temporary tent housing were fairly skilled and self-sufficient, but this is closest... Separately returned on Census records formed 10,000 years ago and has been retreating its! In Georgia train until transient workers could complete their temporary tent housing from the Matanuska valley colony was returned the. Successful crops yielding thoroughly ripened grain included wheat, barley, oats, and we don’t you! Month of their arrival, the colonists, they quickly bonded over their shared experience corporation for purchase cost... Time it was one of many rural rehabilitation colonies to be established the... Description: Matanuska Glacier stretches 27 miles into the Mountain, and the Pine Mountain rural. Vetch, also did well permanent houses or hospitals throughout the colony the! For good a gravel loop matanuska glacier history, water pump, toilets, pits... The broad floodplain Hike - Alaska April 2019 - Travel Vlog ( 4K ) - Duration: 17:13 lobed during! Milk was sold bottled and pasteurized and delivered across the territory 4K ) - Duration: 17:13 were permanent! Moved to the colonists, they were to choose on the basis of need home in early 1935...