[34], After arriving in port, the wounded crewmen were taken to local hospitals and the dead were buried with full military honors. British torpedo bombers attacked the ship off Egersund and scored a single hit that disabled her electrical system and rendered the ship motionless. [21], Shortly before midnight on the night of 8 April, Group 5, with Blücher in the lead, passed the outer ring of Norwegian coastal batteries. [24] On 15 November, the ship sank the tanker MV Africa Shell, and the following day, she stopped an unidentified Dutch steamer, though did not sink her. Admiral Scheer [ˌatmiˈʁaːl ʃeːɐ̯] was a Deutschland-class heavy cruiser (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II.The vessel was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer, German commander in the Battle of Jutland.She was laid down at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven in June 1931 and completed by … PRE-WAR. German torpedo boats attacked the submarine and drove her off. [19] The refit lasted until March 1940,[17] after which it was intended to send the ship on another commerce raiding operation into the South Atlantic. See more. "KM Admiral Graf Spee". The formula adopted was six 11 inch guns in two triple turrets on a cruiser size hull with cruiser level protection and diesel propulsion for extended range. [36] The water was shallow enough that her main deck was still 2 m (6 ft 7 in) above water, permitting her use as a stationary gun battery against advancing Soviet forces. She returned to Norway in early November with a destroyer escort, arriving in Narvik on the 12th. [8], Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer were deployed to the Spanish coast on 23 July 1936 to conduct non-intervention patrols off the Republican-held coast of Spain. [26], Admiral Graf Spee's Arado floatplane located the merchant ship Doric Star: Langsdorff fired a shot across her bow to stop the ship. [27], She was recommissioned for service on 31 March 1941, after which the Kriegsmarine initially planned to send the ship on the commerce raiding operation planned the previous year. The ship was equipped with two Arado Ar 196 seaplanes and one catapult. [3] Admiral Graf Spee was powered by four sets of MAN 9-cylinder double-acting two-stroke diesel engines. [32], As a result of battle damage and casualties, Langsdorff decided to put into Montevideo, where repairs could be effected and the wounded men could be evacuated from the ship. At 07:25, Admiral Graf Spee scored a hit on Ajax that disabled her aft turrets. Deutschland's armored belt was 60 to 80 mm (2.4 to 3.1 in) thick; her upper deck was 17 mm (0.67 in) thick while the main armored deck was 17 to 45 mm (0.67 to 1.77 in) thick. The quarry was the Allied convoy JW51B on its way to deliver supplies to the USSR and protected by now fewer than six British destroyers. [14] A prize crew was dispatched to the ship; they took the ship with the original crew held prisoner to Germany via Murmansk. [35], Lützow, sunk in the Kaiserfahrt, on 26 April, Hitler was furious over the failure to destroy the convoy, and ordered that all remaining German major warships be broken up for scrap. [38], On 20 December, in his room in a Buenos Aires hotel, Langsdorff shot himself in full dress uniform while lying on the ship's battle ensign. On 3 July, the force left their anchorages, and in heavy fog Lützow and three destroyers ran aground and suffered significant damage. [34] Under Article 17 of the Hague Convention of 1907, neutrality restrictions limited Admiral Graf Spee to a period of 72 hours for repairs in Montevideo, before she would be interned for the duration of the war. Burnett's ships approached from Admiral Hipper's starboard side and achieved complete surprise. The German force was strong with the heavy cruiser KMS Admiral Hipper and pocket battleship Lutzow. The Admiralty broadcast a series of signals, on frequencies known to be intercepted by German intelligence. Force G was reinforced by the light cruisers Ajax and Achilles; Harwood detached Cumberland to patrol the area off the Falkland Islands while his other three cruisers patrolled off the River Plate. During the ensuing Battle of Drøbak Sound, Blücher was hit by many shells and two torpedoes. ", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in December 1939, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_cruiser_Admiral_Graf_Spee&oldid=1006060275, Military units and formations of Nazi Germany in the Spanish Civil War, World War II shipwrecks in the Atlantic Ocean, World War II shipwrecks in the South Atlantic, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 February 2021, at 20:43. In March 1935, she sailed as far as the Caribbean and South American waters. Deutschland (later renamed Lützow), Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee were simply termed panzerschiffe (armored ships) by the Germans, but they were known to their opponents by the far more evocative term Pocket Battleships. Long range was critical, as Germany had no overseas bases. [24] The ship was only able to fire her secondary battery in return. [39] The historian Hans Georg Prager examined the former Soviet archives in the early 2000s, and discovered that Lützow actually had been sunk in weapons tests in July 1947.[40]. Between August 1936 and May 1937, the ship conducted three patrols off Spain. Built>1/700 Wwii German Pocket Battleship Deutschland : $50. The British Admiralty immediately issued a warning to merchant shipping that a German surface raider was in the area. Bidlingmaier, Gerhard (1971). While replenishing his fuel supplies, Langsdorff ordered superfluous equipment transferred to the Altmark; this included several of the ship's boats, flammable paint, and two of her ten 2 cm anti-aircraft guns, which were installed on the tanker. This handsome volume provides a complete pictorial history and timeline of the first member of the class, Deutschland. Four of the other five destroyers escorting the convoy rushed to join the fight, while Achates laid a smoke screen to cover the convoy. At 05:52, however, the ship was identified as HMS Exeter; she was accompanied by a pair of smaller warships, initially thought to be destroyers but quickly identified as Leander-class cruisers. Captive Allied seamen still aboard the ship were released. Her anti-aircraft battery originally consisted of three 8.8 cm (3.5 in) L/45 guns, though in 1935 these were replaced with six 8.8 cm L/78 guns. [32] The respite allowed Exeter to withdraw from the action; by now, only one of her gun turrets was still in action, and she had suffered 61 dead and 23 wounded crew members. [13] By this time, Deutschland had moved south to hunt in the Bermuda-Azores sea lane. [11] These included cruises into the Atlantic, where she stopped in Tangier and Vigo. [40], In February 2004, a salvage team began work raising the wreck of Admiral Graf Spee. About the … The ship was nominally under the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limitation on warship size imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, though with a full load displacement of 16,020 long tons (16,280 t), she significantly exceeded it. [21] Newton Beech was too slow to keep up with Admiral Graf Spee, and so the prisoners were transferred to the cruiser. Machinery comprised of twelve marine-type boilers powering three triple expansion steam engines, which turned three sh… Thats often cited as the reason and may or may no be true but theres also another, more practical reason for the name change. Lützow and the remaining three destroyers would then attack the undefended convoy from the south. [10], On 24 August 1939, a week before the German invasion of Poland, Deutschland set sail from Wilhelmshaven, bound for a position south of Greenland. [12] On 21 August 1939, Admiral Graf Spee departed Wilhelmshaven, bound for the South Atlantic. Lützow was referenced once in the Wehrmachtbericht, an information bulletin issued by the headquarters of the Wehrmacht. [34] Lützow was then ordered to break off the attack on the convoy and reinforce Admiral Hipper. The main battery turrets had 140 mm (5.5 in) thick faces and 80 mm thick sides. [17] In 1940, the ship underwent a major overhaul, during which a raked clipper bow was installed to improve the sea-keeping qualities of the ship. [22][23] Lützow was hit three times by 15 cm shells from Oscarsborg's Kopås battery, causing significant damage.[24]. [2] The ship also carried a pair of quadruple 53.3 cm (21 in) deck-mounted torpedo tubes placed on her stern. The work was completed in Kiel by January 1944, after which she remained in the Baltic Sea to conduct training cruises for new naval personnel. All saw action in the Spanish Civil War (the Deutschland being bombed and suffering her first action casualties), all made raiding sorties in to the Atlantic, and all saw action with surface forces. The purpose of that foray was to divert Allied warships away from the South Atlantic, and to confuse the Allies about his intentions. At a cruising speed of 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph), the ship could steam for 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi). [35] British naval intelligence worked to convince Langsdorff that vastly superior forces were concentrating to destroy his ship, if he attempted to break out of the harbor. The ship's remaining ammunition supply was dispersed throughout the ship, in preparation for scuttling. I would suggest saving your money and spending more to find a copy of 'Pocket Battleships of the Deutschland Class' by Koop/Schmolke which I believe to be the definitive work on the subject. These were either to break out and seek refuge in Buenos Aires, where the Argentine government would intern the ship, or to scuttle the ship in the Plate estuary. Lützow in Kiel after being torpedoed on her way back from Norway. The cruisers engaged Admiral Hipper, which had been firing to port at the destroyer Obedient. She continued in this role until 4 May,[5] by which time she had expended her main battery ammunition. The Deutschland/ /Lutzow was the luckiest of the pocket battleships Germany constructed. In the span of thirty minutes, Admiral Graf Spee had hit Exeter three times, disabling her two forward turrets, destroying her bridge and her aircraft catapult, and starting major fires. [38] A crowd of 20,000 watched as the scuttling charges were set; the crew was taken off by an Argentine tug and the ship was scuttled at 20:55. Langsdorff ordered both vessels to depart at high speed, successfully evading the British cruiser. After returning to Germany, she went into dock for routine maintenance work, as well as installation of additional equipment. She rendezvoused with Admiral Scheer to take on additional doctors before proceeding to Gibraltar where the dead were buried with full military honors. The ship was equipped with two Arado Ar 196 seaplanes and one catapult. To be singled out in the Wehrmachtbericht was an honor. They are faster and bulkier, though have weaker artillery compared to higher-tier battleships. Work began under construction number 219. [10] In the summer of 1936, following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she deployed to the Atlantic to participate in non-intervention patrols off the Republican-held coast of Spain. The supply ship Westerwald was assigned to support Deutschland during the operation. Admiral Graf Spee encountered her last victim on the evening of 7 December: the freighter Streonshalh. [25] Despite the setback, KzS August Thiele, Lützow's commander, was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for his actions during the Battle of Drøbak Sound, during which he took command of the task force after the loss of Blücher. [12] She also participated in extensive fleet maneuvers in German waters. Pocket battleships of the Deutschland class : Deutschland/Lützow, Admiral Scheer, Admiral Graf Spee Koop , Gerhard , Schmolke , Klaus-Peter The warships of the World War II era German Navy are among the most popular subject in naval history with an almost uncountable number of books devoted to them. With the construction of the first Deutschland class ‘pocket battleship’, the German Navy had broken new ground. Admiral Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage on the British ships, but she too was damaged, and was forced to put into port at Montevideo, Uruguay. [11] Deutschland was ordered to strictly observe prize rules, which required raiders to stop and search ships for contraband before sinking them, and to ensure that their crews are safely evacuated. On the German side was the pocket battleship Graf Spee, while on the British side were HMS Ajax, HMS Exeter, HMNZS Achilles. Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff" (armored ship), nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. One of the aircraft on board was damaged, and four gunners were killed by the third shell. [10], After the conclusion of the Review, Admiral Graf Spee returned to Spain for a fourth non-intervention patrol. Authenticast Comet … She then participated in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Norway. The first major section—a 27 metric tons (27 long tons; 30 short tons) gunnery rangefinding telemeter—was raised on 25 February. She was made the flagship of the now Vizeadmiral Kummetz, the commander of Kampfgruppe 2. Pocket-battleship ‘Admiral Graf Spee’ pre-war in port. In 1940, the 8.8 cm guns were removed, and six 10.5 cm (4.1 in) L/65 guns, four 3.7 cm (1.5 in) guns, and ten 2 cm (0.79 in) guns were installed in their place. [1] The ship was launched on 19 May 1931; at her launching, she was christened by German Chancellor Heinrich Brüning. The Pocket Battleship Branch is a sub-branch alternative to the nominal Battleships and are initially just heavily armored Heavy Cruisers. [29] Kummetz's plan was to divide his force in half; he would take Admiral Hipper and three destroyers north of the convoy to attack it and draw away the escorts. [15] In early November, the Naval High Command recalled Deutschland; she passed through the Denmark Strait on 15 November and anchored in Gotenhafen on the 17th. On 15 October, Admiral Graf Spee rendezvoused with Altmark to refuel and transfer prisoners; the following morning, the prize Huntsman joined the two ships. [19] In April, however, she was assigned to forces participating in the invasion of Norway. [2] The ship's top speed was 28.5 knots (52.8 km/h; 32.8 mph), at 54,000 PS (53,260 shp; 39,720 kW). In 1938, the 8.8 cm guns were removed, and six 10.5 cm (4.1 in) L/65 guns, four 3.7 cm (1.5 in) SK C/30 guns, and ten 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 guns were installed in their place. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Admiral Graf Spee returned to the Atlantic between 17 and 26 November to refuel from Altmark. [31], Lützow meanwhile steamed toward the convoy from the south, and at 11:42 she opened fire. [10], Severe weather in the North Atlantic hampered Deutschland's raiding mission, though she did tie down several British warships assigned to track her down. [9] The salvage rights were purchased from the German Government by the British, for £14,000, using a Montevideo engineering company as a front. Authenticast Comet Metal Prinz Euben Class Battleship Circa 1940's. On 8 October, the following day, she sank Newton Beech,[20] which Langsdorff had been using to house prisoners. [1], The ship also carried a pair of quadruple 53.3 cm (21.0 in) deck-mounted torpedo launchers placed on her stern. [32], On 13 April 1945, twenty-four Avro Lancaster bombers attacked Lützow and Prinz Eugen without success due to cloud cover. This battleship / Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class “Panzerschiff”, nicknamed a “pocket battleship” by the British. [4] As designed, her standard complement consisted of 33 officers and 586 enlisted men, though after 1935 this was significantly increased to 30 officers and 921–1,040 sailors. [30] Lützow returned to Germany for repairs, which lasted until the end of October. The port was attacked by Republican aircraft, though anti-aircraft fire from the warships drove them off. [11] In 1938, KzS Hans Langsdorff took command of the vessel;[8] she conducted a series of goodwill visits to various foreign ports throughout the year. She quickly capsized and sank with the loss of approximately 1,000 sailors and soldiers. [19], On the same day as the formation of the Anglo-French hunter groups, Admiral Graf Spee captured the steamer Newton Beech. Sunk in the Kaiserfahrt in April 1945 by Royal Air Force (RAF) bombers, Lützow was used as a gun battery to support German troops fighting the Soviet Army until 4 May 1945, when she was disabled by her crew. The German Navy worked around the Treaty of Versailles limitations to create this special group of steel warships. Unable to accommodate the crew from Huntsman, Admiral Graf Spee sent the ship to a rendezvous location with a prize crew. Bad weather hampered her efforts, and she only sank or captured a handful of vessels before returning to Germany. [9] Two bombs struck the ship; the first penetrated the upper deck near the bridge and exploded above the main armored deck while the second hit near the third starboard 15 cm gun, causing serious fires below decks. [1] Her keel was laid on 5 February 1929,[2] under construction number 219. [16] In the course of her raiding mission, she sank only two vessels and captured a third. Admiral Graf Spee was deployed to the South Atlantic in the weeks before the outbreak of World War II, to be positioned in merchant sea lanes once war was declared. 1934 - German pocket battleship "Admiral Scheer" completed 1935 - Under the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, Germany was allowed to build a surface fleet up to 35% of British total tonnage. [29] The ship's disguise was removed, so it would not hinder the ship in battle. As designed, her standard complement consisted of 33 officers and 586 enlisted men, though after 1935 this was significantly increased to 30 officers and 921–1,040 sailors. [8] She was completed slightly over a year and a half later on 6 January 1936, the day she was commissioned into the German fleet. The Deutschland class armored ship were popularly called "pocket battleships". [2] Radar consisted of a FMG G(gO) "Seetakt" set;[5][a] Admiral Graf Spee was the first German warship to be equipped with radar equipment. The ship's first commander was Kapitän zur See (KzS) Conrad Patzig; he was replaced in 1937 by KzS Walter Warzecha. [32] Both sides broke off the action, Admiral Graf Spee retreating into the River Plate estuary, while Harwood's battered cruisers remained outside to observe any possible breakout attempts. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in 1940. [33] Most of the hits scored by the British cruisers caused only minor structural and superficial damage but the oil purification plant, which was required to prepare the diesel fuel for the engines, was destroyed. [25] While replenishing supplies, the crew of Admiral Graf Spee built a dummy gun turret on her bridge and erected a dummy second funnel behind the aircraft catapult to alter her silhouette significantly in a bid to confuse allied shipping as to her true identity. Steaming into the Oslofjord at a speed of 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph), the Germans came into range of the Norwegian guns; the 28 cm, 15 cm and 57 mm guns opened fire on the invaders. Damaged at the Battle of Drøbak Sound, she was recalled to Germany for repairs. [27] Doric Star was able to send out a distress signal before she was sunk, which prompted Harwood to take his three cruisers to the mouth of the River Plate, which he suspected might be Langsdorff's next target. Armed with six 28 cm (11 in) guns in two triple gun turrets, Admiral Graf Spee and her sisters were designed to outgun any cruiser fast enough to catch them. Lützow's forward gun turret was hit by one of the 15 cm rounds, which disabled the center gun and damaged the right barrel. [28], Lützow left Germany on 15 May 1942 for Norway; by 25 May she had joined Admiral Scheer in Bogen Bay. This ship served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. [30] At 06:08, the British spotted Admiral Graf Spee; Harwood divided his ships to split the gunfire of Admiral Graf Spee's 28 cm guns. On 18 December, the ship, with only Langsdorff and 40 other men aboard, moved into the outer roadstead to be scuttled. Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger, eds (1980). [37][39] The multiple explosions from the munitions sent jets of flame high into the air and created a large cloud of smoke that obscured the ship which burned in the shallow water for the next two days. Kongsdal would eventually report to the British Royal Navy the incident and confirm Deutschland as the raider operating in the North Atlantic. They used the knowledge thus acquired to try to develop countermeasures, under the leadership of Fred Hoyle at the British radar project. The ship carried a secondary battery of eight 15 cm (5.9 in) SK C/28 guns in single turrets grouped amidships. The German pocket battleships, or Panzerschiffe, struck fear into every navy in the world when they were developed and deployed in the 1930's. [38], The wreck was partially broken up in situ in 1942–1943, though parts of the ship were visible for some time after; the wreck lies at a depth of only 11 m (36 ft). She had her aircraft catapult installed in this period, and was provided with two Heinkel He 60 floatplanes. [16] Langsdorff ordered a distress signal sent to the naval station in Pernambuco to ensure the rescue of the ship's crew. Admiral Graf Spee fired on her again, scored more hits, and forced Exeter to withdraw again, this time with a list to port. In April 1934, Adolf Hitler visited the ship; he reportedly toured the ship alone, speaking informally with crewmen. Significant action with the Kriegsmarine to order her to return to Germany for repairs 1/700 Wwii pocket! 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